• The 1960's


The 1960's was considered by many people as the decade of the counter culture, and the social revolution.

The 60's were branded with the term "The Swinging Sixties" due to the fall of sexism and racial intolerance.

The 60's were also known as a time of denoting the changing world, even though this period was of great involvement and continued into the 1970's. In fact the period known as the "High Sixties" started and ended between the years 1965-1973.


Some onlookers stated the the reason the 60's were so consequential was because that the

previous decade was not able to adjust itself for the changing needs of the people, so to solve this the

people broke away from their previous way of life and created a society more made for them.

Which was an extreme alteration of what was considered normal, such as the stereotypical view of hippies,

who were groups of individuals who imbraced communal living, listened to rock, opposed the Vietnam War,

and were known to take grugs such as Pot, Lsd and "Magic Mushrooms". However the majority of people at

the time were not hippies.

Hippie.jpg
A Hippie gathering.

Perhaps the most important thing about the sixties was the social reform. Minority groups were demanding

equal rights and staging mass protests in order to given rights equal to their male, Caucasian counterparts.

It was also a time when feminism was growing, and women were allowed, socially, to have a job outside of the home.

All of which make up the decade known as the Sixties.

Contents

1. World Events

2. War and Politics

3. Disasters

4. Technology and Science

5. People

6. Assassinations

7.The Culture

8. The After Effects

World events


  • The Cultural Revolution of China-(1966–1976)- A time of political unheaval in the

People's Republic of China, led by Mao Zedong the chairman of the Chinese

Communist Party. Mao insisted that the affluent Liberal Party members were

attempting to restore capitalism. He suggested that the class struggle could

be solved through the expressing of individual thoughts of the Chinese Youth

who would later form the Red Guards. He used brainwashing, as some former

Red Guards say, and instilling fanatical pride in their country in order to control them.

  • French workers and students riot of Paris 1968

  • Tlatelolco Massacre- October 2, 1968-a government massacre of student and civilian protesters, and innocent bystanders.

  • September 1,1968- Military officer Muammar al-Gaddafi leads a coup against the Libyan Monarchy.

  • Decolonization of African nations.

  • Canada becomes a more secular nation.

  • Canada adopts the maple leaf on their flag.

  • Construction of the Berlin Wall begins in 1961

  • The Soviet Union invades Czechoslovakia to enforce a stricter form of Communism, which draws students to the protest movement.

  • Worldwide protests for increased wages, Most prominently in Europe.

War and politics


  • The Cold War

    • The Cuban Missile Crisis- US discovers Soviet missles planted in Cuba. The US strongarms the Soviets to remove them.

Cuban_Missile_Crisis.gif
A political cartoon depicting the power struggle.
  • The Vietnam War

    • 1961- American advisory forces land for the first time in Vietnam. About 700 advisors in total.

    • 1963- After the overthowing of the Diem Regime, President Kennedy increased the number od military advisors to 16,300 to adress increased guerilla activity in Vietnam.

    • 1963-President Diem of Vietnam was executed.

    • 1964 after the Tonkin Gulf Incident, Congress gave President Lyndon B Johnson the authority to place military forces in Southwest Asia without a declaration of war.Bay of Pigs invasion, failed attempt that angered many Soviets and increased tension between US and Russia.

    • 1965-1968- Operation"Rolling Thunder" damages North Vietnam with tons of missiles and rockets.

    • 1966 the US draft places 500,000 troops on Vietnamese soil.

    • 1968-The My Lai Massacre causes an enormous eruption of anti-protests worldwide.

    • 1969- Kent State Shooting causes many new protests. After protestors and bystanders were shot at an American college.

    • 1973 Paris Peace Accords, US would withdraw troops from Vietnam,

    • South Vietnam was left to defend itself when conflict resumed, after the US had left.


  • Arab israeli Conflict

    • Six-day War- a war between Isreal and the neighboring countries of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. Other Arab states helped fund Egypt, Jordan and Syria. This war contributed to the borders of Isreal to this day.

Natural and man-made disasters


  • Hurricane Betsy, 1965- Swept the Florida coast. Considered the most deadly hurricane to date. Killed 76 people, destroyed 8 off shore oil platforms and 1 oil rig.

  • Chicago Blizzard of 1967- Chicago was blanketed in 2 feet of snow which resulted in the death of 26 people, massive looting, and empty store shelves

  • Cuyahoga River Fire of 1969- The Ohio river caught of fire due to the high amount of pollutants is the river. in order to solve this legislature passed the "Clean Water Act, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement" to improve the water quality. The event also helped in creating the Environmental Protection Agency.


Science and technology




The Space Race

  • The Space Race was between the United States and the Soviet Union, and would dominate in US and Soviet relations.

  • The Soviets were able to get the first space satellite into the air.

  • They were able to get the first dog into the air, which later died of overheating, and it was considered a victory.

  • The Russians put the first man into space. He was cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

  • However toward 1965 the tide was turning and the US had taken the lead.

The Moon Landing

  • July 20,1969- Apollo 11, Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong and Michael Collins land on the moon. Speculation ensues.

Automobiles

  • General Motors, Ford, Chrysler enjoy their highest recorded sales in the 60's.

Other Interesting Advancement

  • 1960- The first working laser was demonstrated at Hughes Research Center in California.

  • 1962- the first computer game, "Spacewar!" is invented.

  • The first birth-control pill was marketed after FDA approval.

People


JFK-President of the United States number 35

  • Served in the military.

  • Delt with the Cuban Missile Crisis.

  • Ordered the Bay of Pigs assault.

  • Created the Peace Corps.

  • Increased minnimum wage.

  • Set the goal for the moon landing.

  • Aided the Civil Rights Movement.

  • Ordered a quarantine of Cuba.

  • Signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty with the Soviets.

LBJ- President number 36

  • Created Medicare and Medicaid.

  • Signed the Civil Rights Acts Legislation and Voting Rights Act.

  • Increased troop numbers in Vietnam.

Martin Luther King- Leader of the Black Civil Rights Movement.

Ho Chi Minh- Leader of the Democratic Union of Vietnam.

Marilyn Monroe- The last of the great divas.

Stanley Kubrick- Director of the Space Odyssey, which inspired a new generation of science-fiction movies.

Betty Friedan- Wrote the Feminine Mystique, which started the Womens Rights Movement.

Muhammad Ali- Famous boxer who became a hero in African American communities.

Assassinations


  • June 12, 1963- Medger Evers, an African American NAACP field secretary. Assassinated by Ku Klux Klan member in his own driveway, Bryon De La Beckwith. Beckwith was found found not guilty, and given a hero's welcome after the trial.

  • November 12, 1963- Ngo Dinh Diem, President of Vietnam at Tan Son Nhut Air Base. Assassinated by Duong Hieu Nghia and Nguyen Van Nhungin the back of carrier tank.

  • November 22, 1963- John F. Kennedy, President of the United States was assassinated by ex-Marine, Lee Harvey Oswald according to the official reports, in his car during a parade at Dallas, Texas.

  • February 21, 1965- Malcolm X. Assassinated by members of the Nation of Islam at the Manhattan Audubon Ballroom.

  • August 25, 1967- George Lincoln Rockwell. Leader of the American Nazi party. Assassinated by Marxist, John Patler Arlington, in Virginia.

  • April 4, 1968- Martin Luther King, Jr.- Civil Rights Leader. Assassinated by James Earl Ray, in Memphis Tennessee on the balcony of a hotel.

  • June 5, 1968,- Robert F. Kennedy. Assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan in Los Angeles, after trying to gain support in the upcoming election.

Cultural Movements


Toward 1965 the many American teenagerswere disgusted the the high level of materialism that was so common in their world. These individuals formed themselves into a "counterculture" of their parents. This started a vast ripple effect in the US. The main cause of this was the conformity and conservatism, of the 50's and the ongoing war in Vietnam. Their main cause was for the advancement of women and minority groups. These people were most known for their love of psychedelic music and the usage of illegal drugs.

Anti-war Movement

  • Students became a powerful anti-war force.

  • One form of protest was the sit-in.

  • Many people who protested did not want to be associated with the hippie movement.

Feminism Movement

  • In the 50's the woman's place was seen as working at home.

  • Feminists took to the streets protesting, and writing books againts traditional values.

  • Most heavily influenced by the Feminine Mystique

The Chicano Movement

  • Advocated for Spanish to be taught in schools.

  • Adressed that discrimination against Latin Americans was unconstitutional.

  • Urged that Chicanos should not be given less than their white co-workers.

African-American Movement

  • Bus boycots were organized to punish white bus companies for

discrimination.civil-rights-march.jpg

  • African Americans protested that they be given equal rights.

  • the photos of the protesters bieng mercilessly beaten, and attacked by dogs were distributed innewspapers, and magazines all across the country.

  • Freedom Riders were activists traveled through the South to integrate buses.

  • Some Black students were selected to integrate white schools.

  • September 15- KKK members bomb a church killing 4 young girls.

  • This outraged many protesters

  • The March on Washington was the biggest success for protestors, after Martin Luther King gave his "I Have A Dream" speech.

The Culture


Music

  • Motown

  • Folk Rock

  • "The British Invasion"

  • Rock

  • Soul

  • Reggae

  • Psychedelic

  • Blues

Music is said to be the one greatest influence on the 60's culture because the music reflected the changes of times and the differences of opinion.

Film

  • The highest grossing film at the time was "The Sound of Music"

  • Psycho

  • Spartacus

  • Mary Poppins

  • Rosemary's Baby

  • Night of the Living Deadnight-of-the-living-dead-posters.jpg

  • Planet of the Apes


The counterculture had a very large affect on cinema. Filmmakers could push a few more boundaries than previously posible. The movies could show nudity, and much more violence. They could also capitalize on the drug culture. The 60's brought about the end of the classical Hollywood cinema era. Walt Disney died on December 15,1966 from a lung tumor.

Fashion

  • The Beatles brought about the mop-top, Beatle boots and Nehru jackets.

  • Hippies brought in tie-die head bands, naturel fibers, and bell bottomed jeans, as well as paisley prints.

  • Mary Quant invented the mini-skirt

  • Outlandish hairstyles, such as the Beehive became popular.

Influences


The 60's main points are in:

  • Aerospace

  • The Advancement of minority groups

  • The power of the media

  • Femininism

  • The way we are influenced by pop culture.

  • There was also a large outbrake of AIDS after the Hippie Movement, enough said.